By U. Hurit. Radford University. 2019.
Which of the following structures is invaded by that exhibit monopolar budding in the presence of a the genus Trichophyton? Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental Infections with members of the genus Microsporum biological characteristics/Mycology/1 are conﬁned to the hair and skin purchase leflunomide 10mg, while infections caused by the genus Epidermophyton are seen only 29 purchase leflunomide 20mg on-line. A Members of the genus Microsporum produce teardrop-shaped microconidia along the sides of club-shaped microconidia and are usually pigmented the hyphae buy leflunomide 10 mg with amex. Trichophyton Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental mentagrophytes may also produce a red pigment cheap leflunomide 20mg free shipping, biological characteristics/Mycology/1 but it is usually rose colored or orange buy leflunomide 20 mg low price, or deep red. Which dematiaceous mold forms ﬂask-shaped from a patient with athlete’s foot showed large, phialides, each with a ﬂask-shaped collarette? Which Trichophyton species causes the favus Epidermophyton ﬂoccosum is the most frequently type of tinea capitis seen in the Scandinavian isolated member of the genus and infects the skin countries and in the Appalachian region of the but not the hair. Te Hair Baiting Test is used to diﬀerentiate diﬀerentiated by its ability to invade the hair shaft. The reverse side of the agar plate remains buﬀ green-black, or black appearance of both the or cream colored, which diﬀerentiates it from the surface and reverse side is classiﬁed as a: dematiaceous (dark) molds. Dimorphic fungus the ﬂask-shaped phialides of Phialophora, which Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental contain clusters of conidia at the tips. A rapidly growing hyaline mold began as a white colony but soon developed a black “pepper” eﬀect on the agar surface. Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Mycology/1 452 Chapter 7 | Microbiology 37. Microscopic examination showed multiseptate Answers to Questions 37–41 macroconidia appearing as sickles or canoes. Material from a fungus-ball infection produced is a hyaline (light) mold and grows on Sabouraud colonies with a green surface on Sabouraud agar in agar plates at 30°C within 4 days. Microscopic examination showed organisms are members of the Dematiaceae family club-shaped vesicles with sporulation only from (dark molds). What is the most likely stolons and sporangiophores meet, whereas those of identiﬁcation? A bone marrow sample obtained from an Answers to Questions 42–44 immunocompromised patient revealed small intracellular cells using a Wright’s stain 42. Growth on Sabouraud–dextrose produce microconidia and hyphal fragments at 37°C agar plates of a mold phase at 25°C and a yeast (yeast phase), whereas at 25°C (mold phase) the phase at 37°C designates the organism as organism displays large, thick-walled, round dimorphic. What is The yeast form is able to survive within circulating the most likely identiﬁcation? Coccidioides immitis recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage or induced Microbiology/Apply knowledge for identiﬁcation/ sputum in immunocompromised patients. A lung biopsy obtained from an silver stain is used to identify the organism; it stains immunocompromised patient showed many the cyst form but not the trophozoites. Te patient was arthroconidia are highly infectious, an open plate diagnosed with pneumonia that resisted antibiotic should not be used, and a slide culture test should treatment. Pneumocystis jirovecci (carinii) testing, and all work should be performed in a B. Upon direct examination of a sputum specimen, several spherules were noted that contained endospores. Coccidioides immitis Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make identiﬁcations/Mycology/3 454 Chapter 7 | Microbiology 45. At 37°C, the yeast blood, skin, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and internal form grew more slowly, showing conidia that organs of immunocompromised patients. What is the specimen of choice for the initial diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii) in an 47. C To determine an early diagnosis, the detection of immunocompromised patient, such as someone soluble antigens of Aspergillus spp. A transplant patient is suspected of having infarction, and necrosis are the most common clinical invasive aspergillosis on the basis of clinical and manifestations of cutaneous infections caused by radiological ﬁndings. Infections occur mainly in patients the initial identiﬁcation of aspergillosis by soluble who are already being treated for other conditions antigen testing? A thermally dimorphic fungus shows a ﬁlamentous Answers to Questions 49–50 mold form with tuberculate macroconidia at room temperature, and a yeast form above 35°C. It is endemic in the Ohio and ﬂulike symptoms with fever, chills, nonproductive Mississippi river valleys, and the most common cough, and chest pain. A Coccidioides immitis is a soil fungus and is endemic to thick-walled spherules containing endospores. Infection results Upon culture, the mold phase showed septate from inhaling the arthroconidia, which form hyphae and alternating barrel-shaped arthroconidia.
He has a long-standing history of Crohn’s disease (an inflammatory condition of the bowel) and had already undergone surgery generic leflunomide 20 mg on line. When I inquired generic leflunomide 10mg on-line, he told me about having to care for his father who had recently died buy 20mg leflunomide with visa, and that he was laid off from a job that he had been working at for the last ten years safe 10mg leflunomide. His diarrhea and abdominal pain had become progressively worse and worse until he ended up with a bowel obstruction that could only be corrected by yet another surgery quality leflunomide 10 mg. He had ignored a growing problem for a long time 5 6 • Mindfulness Medication but his body hadn’t. I was frustrated that I could only try to fix the damage done after the fact, instead of helping Larry learn how to interfere with the progression of his disease while he still had a chance to avoid the knife. She had left her family back home and they were depending on her to send back money to support them. Clearly under tremendous pressure, she began to experience problems with abdominal pain and an irregular bowel pattern with alternating diarrhea and constipation, gas and bloating. She also began having difficulty sleeping and was experiencing headaches and fatigue, which are often some of the first symptoms of ongoing stress. All of her medical tests came back normal and I diagnosed her with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Again, Mika’s body was reacting to the levels of stress in her life and I was forced to just help her treat her symptoms, knowing that until she lowered her stress levels, she was in for more suffering, pain and grief. What’s common to both of these patients and many others, is that their symptoms are really secondary to, or aggravated by, the stress in their lives. If they had been able to understand what their stress levels were doing to their bodies before it made them sick and if they also had some help to then reduce their stress, perhaps I may never have met them at all! Let’s start by taking a look at what both Eastern and Western philosophies have to say about how you create and deal with stress. Rather than seeing them as separate, I have tried to integrate the tools and concepts that I have found to be most useful, regardless of point of origin. This integrative approach merges the best of Eastern and Western philosophy, medicine, and psychology as a means to understand the mind, how each of us creates stress, and how you can best learn to manage and minimize it. What Your Body Has in Mind • 7 Autonomic Physical and Psychological Responses Have you ever had to consciously tell your heart to beat, or your lungs to breathe, in order to make sure that they were doing their jobs? Your heartbeat and breathing are both examples of what scientists call autonomic involuntary behaviours. That’s a fancy way of saying that these biological activities carry on independently, without you having to be actively aware of what’s going on. The same can be said for a lot of the mental activities that carry on in your life. As an example, see if any of the following scenarios are familiar to you: • Have you ever had an experience where you drove from one spot to another and have suddenly realized that you don’t recall driving the last few blocks, or even the whole trip sometimes? Your mind is constantly thinking, evaluating and judging, as well as going over what happened in the past and your plans for the future. It’s what it does naturally, but unlike the moment-to-moment activities of the heart, or the lungs, the automatic thoughts that go through your head are something that can be observed, examined, changed and released. Your thoughts are the product of your experiences, your history, your biology and most importantly, your habits. External events conspire with the internal workings of your mind to create stress. Because your mind has the ability to literally think about itself, you can often find ways in which your habitual patterns of thought are maintaining a stress response. The physical stress response that occurs when your mind perceives a threat is a powerful one. When Larry first lost his job, he thought constantly about how catastrophic this turn of events was. He felt that it was a threat to his financial and social status and potentially a threat to not only his own survival, but also the survival of his family. His body in turn helped him out by releasing adrenaline and cortisol, the body’s alarm bells, as well as other chemicals. These chemicals prepared him to fight or run, as if the origin of the threat were a predatory animal out for his blood. The pupils of his eyes grew bigger and his muscles received more blood in preparation for an immediate action like running or punching, but there was no one to run from and certainly no one to punch! As he continued worrying about his situation, his body could not sustain the initial stress response. His immune system also stopped working very well, so he got every cold and flu bug going around. He was tired all the time, because it’s hard work for the body to stay ready to fight, or run, around the clock. Needless to say, that even when Larry got a new job, he was still worried about making ends meet and his body continued to ‘help him’ by keeping up all the stress responses as best it could, until one by one, his body’s systems and processes began to break down.
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Axons are long cheap leflunomide 20 mg without a prescription, The three major structures of the neuron are the single projections ranging from a few millimeters cell body buy leflunomide 20mg free shipping, axon cheap 10 mg leflunomide mastercard, and dendrites best 10 mg leflunomide. Axons transmit The (1) cell body is the enlarged structure of the impulses to dendrites of other neurons as well as neuron that contains the (2) nucleus of the cell and muscles and glands 20 mg leflunomide for sale. Its branching cytoplasmic pro- Axons in the peripheral nervous system and the jections are (3) dendrites that carry impulses to the central nervous system possess a white, lipoid cov- cell body and (4) axons that carry impulses from ering called (5) myelin sheath. Dendrites resemble tiny branches on as an electrical insulator that reduces the possibility (3) Dendrites (1) Cell body (6) Schwann cell A. Schwann cell nucleus (2) Nucleus (7) Neurilemma (4) Axon (4) Axon (5) Myelin sheath (8) Node of Ranvier (10) Axon terminal (10) Axon terminal Mitochondrion Synaptic bulb (11) Neurotransmitter (9) Synapse Dendrite of receiving neuron B. The neurilemma When sufficient receptor sites are occupied, it sig- does not disintegrate after an axon has been crushed nals an acceptance “message” and the impulse pass- or severed, as does the axon and myelin sheath, but es to the receiving neuron. This intact sheath provides a pathway immediately inactivates the neurotransmitter, and for possible neuron regeneration after injury. The myelin sheath covering the axons in the cen- tral nervous system is formed by oligodendrocytes Neuroglia rather than Schwann cells. Oligodendrocytes do not The term neuroglia literally means nerve glue produce neurilemma, thus injury or damage to neu- because these cells were originally believed to serve rons located in the central nervous system is irrepara- only one function: to bind neurons to each other ble. They are now known to segments of myelin sheath are called (8) nodes of supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons and assist Ranvier. They also play an impulses down the axon because an impulse jumps important role when the nervous system suffers across the nodes at a faster rate than it is able to trav- injury or infection. They provide three-dimensional Impulses must travel from the (10) axon terminal mechanical support for neurons and form tight of one neuron to the dendrite of the next neuron or sheaths around the capillaries of the brain. Anatomy and Physiology 429 sheaths provide an obstruction, called the blood- of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is protect- brain barrier, that keeps large molecular substances ed by the bony skull and the spinal cord is protect- from entering the delicate tissue of the brain. Researchers must take the the body, the brain is highly complex in structure blood-brain barrier into consideration when and function. Microglia, the smallest of • cerebellum the neuroglia, possess phagocytic properties and • diencephalon may become very active during times of infection. Ependyma are ciliated cells that line fluid-filled cavities of the central nervous system, especially Cerebrum the ventricles of the brain. Nervous System Divisions The fissure does not completely separate the The nervous system consists of two main divisions: hemispheres. A structure called the (2) corpus cal- the central nervous system and the peripheral nerv- losum joins these hemispheres, permitting com- ous system. Its nervous tissue is classi- The cerebral surface consists of numerous folds, fied as white matter or gray matter. The gyri are separated axons with their white lipoid myelin sheath consti- by furrows or fissures called sulci. A thin layer tutes white matter and unmyelinated fibers, den- called the cerebral cortex covers the entire cere- drites, and nerve cell bodies make up gray matter brum and is composed of gray matter. Table 14-1 Nervous System Structures and Functions This table lists the structures of the nervous system along with their functions. The cerebellum also aids in maintaining equilib- perception and interpretation, language, voluntary rium and balance. Diencephalon The (8) diencephalon (also called interbrain) Cerebellum is composed of many smaller structures, includ- The second largest structure of the brain, the ing the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The (7) cerebellum, occupies the posterior portion of (9) thalamus receives all sensory stimuli except the skull. All functions of the cerebellum involve olfactory and processes and transmits them to Anatomy and Physiology 431 the appropriate centers in the cerebral cortex. In dense, and composed primarily of connective tis- addition, the thalamus receives impulses from sue. Because of its thickness, this membrane is also the cerebrum and relays them to efferent nerves. A sub- arachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid, a Brainstem colorless fluid that contains proteins, glucose, urea, The brainstem completes the last major section of salts, and some white blood cells. It is composed of three structures: the lates around the spinal cord and brain and through (11) midbrain (also called mesencephalon), separating ventricles located within the inner portion of the the cerebrum from the brainstem; the (12) medulla, brain. It provides nutritive substances to the cen- which attaches to the spinal cord; and (13) the pons, tral nervous system and adds additional protection or “bridge,” connecting the midbrain to the medulla. Normally, cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed conduction between the brain and spinal cord.