By G. Kirk. Swarthmore College. 2019.
As previously noted buy discount metoprolol 25 mg line, splitting is a major defense mechanism of patients with borderline per- sonality disorder buy metoprolol 100mg overnight delivery. A major thrust of psychotherapy is to help pa- tients recognize that their perception of others order metoprolol 12.5 mg visa, including the therapist purchase metoprolol 25 mg fast delivery, is a representation rather than how they really are purchase metoprolol 25 mg line. Because of the potential for impulsive behavior, therapists must be comfortable with setting limits on self-destructive behaviors. Similarly, at times therapists may need to convey to pa- tients the limits of the therapist’s own capacities. Individual psychodynamic therapy without concomitant group therapy or other partial hos- pital modalities has some empirical support (20, 21). These studies, which used nonrandom- ized waiting list control conditions and “pre-post” comparisons, suggested that twice-weekly psychodynamic therapy for 1 year may be helpful for many patients with borderline personality disorder. In these studies, as in the randomized controlled trials, the therapists met regularly for group consultation. There is a large clinical literature describing psychoanalytic/psychodynamic individual ther- apy for patients with borderline personality disorder (12, 14, 15, 18, 22–38). Most of these clinical reports document the difficult transference and countertransference aspects of the treatment, but they also provide considerable encouragement regarding the ultimate treatabil- ity of borderline personality disorder. Therapists who persevere describe substantial improve- ment in well-suited patients. Some of these skilled clinicians have reported success with the use of psychoanalysis four or five times weekly (22, 24, 34, 39). These cases may have involved “higher level” patients with borderline personality disorder who more likely fit into the Kern- berg category of borderline personality organization (a broader theoretical rubric that describes a specific intrapsychic structural organization ). Some exceptional patients who do meet criteria for borderline personality disorder may be analyzable in the hands of gifted and well- trained clinicians, but most psychotherapists and psychoanalysts agree that psychoanalytic psy- chotherapy, at a frequency of one to three times a week face-to-face with the patient, is a more suitable treatment than psychoanalysis. The limited literature on group therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder in- dicates that group treatment is not harmful and may be helpful, but it does not provide evidence of any clear advantage over individual psychotherapy. In general, group therapy is usually used in combination with individual therapy and other types of treatment, reflecting clinical wisdom that the combination is more effective than group therapy alone. Studies of combined individ- ual dynamic therapy plus group therapy suggest that nonspecified components of combined in- terventions may have the greatest therapeutic power (40). Clinical experience suggests that a relatively homogeneous group of patients with borderline personality disorder is generally rec- ommended for group therapy, although patients with dependent, schizoid, and narcissistic per- sonality disorders or chronic depression also mix well with patients with borderline personality disorder (12). It is generally recommended that patients with antisocial personality disorder, un- treated substance abuse, or psychosis not be included in groups designed for patients with bor- derline personality disorder. The published literature on couples therapy with patients with borderline personality dis- order consists only of reported clinical experience and case reports. This clinical literature sug- gests that couples therapy may be a useful and at times essential adjunctive treatment modality, since inherent in the very nature of the illness is the potential for chaotic interpersonal relation- ships. However, couples therapy is not recommended as the only form of treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. Clinical experience suggests that it is relatively contrain- dicated when either partner is unable to listen to the other’s criticisms or complaints without becoming too enraged, terrified, or despairing (41). There is only one published study of family therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder (12), which found that a psychoeducational approach could greatly enhance commu- nication and diminish conflict about independence. Published clinical reports differ in their recommendations about the appropriateness of family therapy and family involvement in the treatment. Whereas some clinicians recommend removing the patient’s treatment from the family setting and not attempting family therapy (12), others recommend working with the patient and family together (42). Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder 23 Copyright 2010, American Psychiatric Association. Clinical experience suggests that family work is most apt to be helpful and can be of critical importance when patients with borderline personality disorder have significant involvement with, or are financially dependent on, the family. The decision about whether to work with the family should de- pend on the degree of pathology within the family and strengths and weaknesses of the family members. Clinical experience suggests that a psychoeducational approach may lay the ground- work for the small subset of families for whom subsequent dynamic family therapy may be ef- fective. Family therapy is not recommended as the only form of treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. Pharmacotherapy and other somatic treatments A pharmacological approach to the treatment of borderline personality disorder is based upon evidence that some personality dimensions of patients appear to be mediated by dysregulation of neurotransmitter physiology and are responsive to medication (43). Pharmacotherapy is used to treat state symptoms during periods of acute decompensation as well as trait vulnera- bilities. Although medications are widely used to treat patients who have borderline personality disorder, the Food and Drug Administration has not approved any medications specifically for the treatment of this disorder.
If disagreements were noresolved af- the guideline developmenand athe Consortium r these rounds 12.5 mg metoprolol mastercard, no recommendation was adopd proven 50 mg metoprolol. Revisions to recommendations were considered for Use of Acronyms incorporation only when substantiad by a prepon- roughouthe guideline metoprolol 50mg low price, readers will see many ac- derance of appropria level evidence buy metoprolol 25mg low price. Edits and revisions to recom- roughouthe guideline generic metoprolol 12.5mg online, readers will see thawhamendations and any other connwere considered has traditionally been referred to as �nonoperative,� for incorporation only when substantiad by a pre- �nonsurgical� or �conservative� care is now referred ponderance of appropria level evidence. Defnition and Natural History of Cervical Radiculopathy from Degenerative Disorders measures. Other commonly cid studies did noreporsubgroup analyses of patients with cervi- cal radiculopathy alone and thereby presend gen- eralized natural history data regarding a heroge- Cervical radiculopathy from degenerative neous cohorof patients with isolad neck pain, disorders can be defned as pain in a radicular cervical radiculopathy or cervical myelopathy. Frequenwork group was unable to defnitively answer the signs and symptoms include varying degrees question posed relad to the natural history of cer- of sensory, motor and refex changes as well vical radiculopathy from degenerative disorders. In as dysesthesias and paresthesias relad to lieu of an evidence-based answer, the work group nerve root(s) withouvidence of spinal cord did reach consensus on the following stamenad- dysfunction (myelopathy). Work Group Consensus StamenIis likely thafor mospatients with cervical radiculopathy from degenerative disorders Whais the natural history of cer- signs and symptoms will be self-limid and will resolve spontaneously over a variable length of vical radiculopathy from degener- time withouspecifc treatment. Work Group Consensus StamenTo address the natural history of cervical radicul- opathy from degenerative disorders, the work group Future Directions for Research performed a comprehensive lirature search and e work group identifed the following pontial analysis. However, all identifed studies failed to meethe guideline�s in- Recommendation #1: clusion criria because they did noade-qualy A prospective study of patients with cervical radicu- presendata abouthe natural history of cervical lopathy from degenerative disorders withoutreat- radiculopathy. Cervical spine degeneration Transforaminal sroid injections for the treatmenof cer- in fghr pilots and controls: a 5-yr follow-up study. Conservative treatmenof cervical radiculop- 20-60 years as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Cervical spine degenerative changes (nar- myelopathy caused by disc herniation with developmen- rowed inrverbral disc spaces and osophys) in coal tal canal snosis. Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatmenof Cervical Radiculopathy from Degenerative Disorders A. Residual sensory defciwas found diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy be considered in 20. In a in patients with arm pain, neck pain, scapular or large group of patients with cervical radiculopathy, periscapular pain, and paresthesias, numbness this study elucidas the common clinical fndings and sensory changes, weakness, or abnormal of pain, paresthesia, motor defciand decreased deep ndon refexes in the arm. Patients included in the study repord the raly predicd on the basis of clinical fndings. Eleven patients pre- porting the results of surgical inrvention in 11 cer- send with only lefchesand arm pain (�cervical vical radiculopathy patients with neck pain from C4 angina�). No pain or paresthesia was re- zial areas and upper extremities depending on the pord by 0. Excluding a single myelopathic patient, four felto be equally involved for the remaining 12. Patients underwenrelief and level of activity based on Odom�s criria, single level nerve roodecompression using a pos- good or excellenresults were obtained in 10 of the rior open foraminotomy. Neck or scapu- to surgical decompression unlike neck pain arising lar pain preceeded the arm/fnger symptoms in 35 from degenerative disc disease. When the pain was suprascapular, C5 or C6 radicu- In critique, no validad outcome measures were lopathy was frequent; when inrscapular, C7 or C8 used and the sample size was small. Arm and fnger symptoms improved ouupper extremity clinical fndings should prompsignifcantly in all groups afr decompression. Six- evaluation for a C4 radiculopathy and thathis eval- ty-one painful sis were nod before surgery: one uation should include C4 sensory sting. One month af- r surgery, 27 patients repord comple pain re- Posal38 repord a retrospective case series re- lief, 23 complained of pain in 24 subregions, seven viewing experience with the surgical managemenof which were the same as before surgery. All buone Symptoms included shoulder pain radiating into new si were nuchal and suprascapular. Aone year the laral aspecof the hand, hand weakness and follow-up, 45 patients repord no pain, fve patients weakness in fnger fexion, fnger exnsion and in- had pain in six sis, three of which were the same as trinsic hand muscles. Recovery of hand can orgina from a compressed cervical nerve roostrength was nod in each patient; however, recov- and is valuable for derming the nerve rooin- ery was incomple in two patients with symptoms volved. In critique, no validad outcome measures were used and the sample size is study provides Level I evidence thacervical ra- was small. Tanaka eal48 described a prospective observational Yoss eal55 conducd a retrospective observational study examining whether or nopain in the neck or study of 100 patients to correla clinical fndings scapular regions in 50 consecutive patients with cer- with surgical fndings when a single cervical nerve vical radiculopathy originad from a compressed roo(C5, C6, C7, C8) is compressed by a disc hernia- nerve root, and whether the si of pain is useful for tion. Symptoms included pain in the neck, shoulder, Tis clinical guideline should nobe construed as including all proper methods of care or excluding other acceptable methods of care reasonably direcd to obtaining the same results. Patients included in the study repord the presence of pain or paresthesia in the forearm following symptoms: arm pain (99. Eleven patients pre- sia corresponded to a single rooor one of two roots send with only lefchesand arm pain (�cervical in 70% and 27%, respectively. Pain or paresthesia in a dermatomal pat- corresponded to a single level in 22/34 (79%) cases. No pain or paresthesia was re- could be correctly localized to a single level or one pord by 0.
In 2009 buy discount metoprolol 12.5mg on-line, seizures in East and South-East detection of six ‘kitchen’ laboratories manufacturing Asia rose by more than one third generic metoprolol 50mg online, from 11 purchase 12.5mg metoprolol. In relative terms 12.5 mg metoprolol free shipping, Thailand recently also registered Iran registered legitimate requirements of 55 mt of the significant increases order metoprolol 12.5 mg free shipping. The largest seizures in the Asia- precursor pseudoepehedrine, the fourth largest level Pacific region continued to be made by China, while worldwide for that year. East and South-East Asia as a whole continued to According to Thai authorities,76 there was an emergent account for approximately one half of global seizures of trend of Iranian nationals trafficking methamphetamine methamphetamine. This pattern was also observed in Japan, sification in trafficking routes, with methamphetamine where Iranian nationals accounted for one fifth of arrests reaching the region from Africa and the Islamic Repub- of non-resident foreigners related to methampheta- lic of Iran. According methamphetamine on flights from the United Arab 81 to Chinese authorities, there was an increase in traf- Emirates. There was also an increase in the domestic manu- 72 Ministry of Interior, Turkish National Police, Department of Anti- facture of illicit drugs, with the number of dismantled Smuggling and Organized Crime. Drug control substances involved were mainly amphetamine-type in 2008, Annual Report and Rapid Situation Assessment, stimulants and ketamine. In a single seizure in May 2009, Malaysian police seized 20 978 kg of high purity crystalline methamphetamine in the city of Johor Bahru. Indonesia also reported 5 the seizure of five ‘kitchen’ methamphetamine laborato- 0 ries in 2008 and 17 in 2009. The general declining trend in ecstasy seizures prevalent worldwide since 2007 (with the exception of North Rest of the world America) was also to be seen in several countries in the North America Asia-Pacific region. By 2009, ecstasy seizures in China, East and South-East Asia Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia and Thailand had fallen sig- China nificantly by comparison with the level in 2007. How- ever, Indonesia reported that nine ‘kitchen’ laboratories In 2009, a notable increase in methamphetamine sei- manufacturing ecstasy were seized in 2008 and 18 in zures was registered in Myanmar, where annual seizures 2009. This increase amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy, with no was concurrent with a similar increase in heroin seizures single type dominating the market. In 2009, Australia in the same country and may reflect a strengthened pres- seized 56 kg of amphetamine, 150 kg of methampheta- ence of law enforcement agencies in parts of Myanmar. According to data were manufacturing amphetamine or methampheta- collated by the Drug Abuse Information Network for mine. New Zealand also seized smaller quantities of Asia and the Pacific, seizures of methamphetamine tab- amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy; however, lets rose from 14 million in 2007 to 22 million in 2008 all 135 seized laboratories reported by New Zealand and 27 million in 2009, while seizures of crystalline were manufacturing methamphetamine. Several African countries appear to be affected by trafficking in, and consumption of, diverted 82 In its reply to the Annual Reports Questionnaire for 2009, Thailand or counterfeit prescription drugs containing controlled reported seizures of 2. Morocco reported 40 36 seizures of 48,293 units of psychotropic substances in 35 2008, rising to 61,254 in 2009 and 105,940 in 2010. Algeria reported aggregate sei- 20 20 1718 zures of 90,630 tablets of sedatives and tranquillisers in 15 13 12 2009. Côte d’Ivoire seized 43 kg of amphetamine in 11 10 10 2008, as well as 17,155 amphetamine tablets (in addi- 10 87 6 tion to seizures of clonazepam and diazepam tablets). The World Customs Organization also 0 reported that Sudanese officials foiled an attempt to smuggle 18. Cathinone/methcathinone Every year from 2000 to 2009, Egyptian authorities *Covers the period 1 April 2008 to 31 March 2009 seized small quantities of ‘ecstasy tablets’. Seizures exceeded 10,000 tablets in 2006, but had fallen to 203 tablets by 2008 to 76 tablets in 2009. In April 2010,88 Methamphetamine trafficking from Africa to Japan one methamphetamine laboratory was seized in Egypt. The proportion of methamphetamine seized in club drugs such as ecstasy and cathinone, continued to Japan that was sourced from Africa increased from 7. The West and tion of ecstasy, were manufactured locally in clandestine Central African countries of Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon laboratories, while ecstasy was mainly smuggled in from and Senegal were prominent among the source countries Europe by air freight and parcel post. South Africa also reported that an increase of this trend, together with reports from other countries in methamphetamine trafficking allowed for a decrease in the region, suggests that African trafficking syndicates prices. Countries in West Africa, which have assumed an important role in the trafficking of cocaine, are also vulnerable to a potentially increased role in the traffick- 86 Official communication from the Government of Morocco. The replies to the Annual Reports Questionnaire for the year 2009 and ing or manufacture of other drugs, including ampheta- 2010 from the Kingdom of Morocco were not available at the time mine-type stimulants. In a separate single seizure, also in July 2009, the high level of 2008, was partly offset by increased Nigerian officials seized 10 kg of crystalline metham- seizures in France, while seizures in Germany continued phetamine and 10 kg of amphetamine along with 57 kg the gradually increasing trend that can be traced back to of the precursor chemical ephedrine. Among all countries worldwide, the Netherlands made at the departure concourse of a flight en route to continued to be the most frequently mentioned country South Africa. In 2010, Nigeria seized 75 kg of meth- eight amphetamine laboratories in 2009, and identified amphetamine: over the nine-month period May 2010 Germany, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom as the – January 2011, 11 out of 150 seizures made by author- main destinations for amphetamine manufactured in ities at Murtala Muhammed International Airport Poland.
The prescription sheet should state the resident’s name and address effective metoprolol 100 mg, date of birth buy cheap metoprolol 12.5 mg online, any known allergies to medicines or no known drug allergies buy metoprolol 25 mg cheap, a list of the resident’s medicines buy metoprolol 25mg with visa, and the prescriber’s name cheap metoprolol 50 mg with amex. The medicines administration record should contain the following: a reference to the medicines listed on the prescription sheet the times of administration (which must match the prescription sheet) the signature of the staff member administering the medicine a system for recording, withholding or refusal of medicines and space to record comments. All the details on the prescription and administration records must be clear and legible. A record of allergies or adverse reactions should be maintained on the prescription and administration records. It is recognised that transcribing of any clinical information is a high risk activity and there are serious risks of inadvertent mistakes in transcription, omissions or duplication of medicines. The decision to transcribe a prescription should only be made in the best interests of the resident. An Bord Altranais agus Cnáimhseachais has issued guidance to nurses and midwives in relation to transcription and stated that a nurse or midwife who transcribes is professionally accountable for his or her decision to transcribe and the accuracy of the transcription. It is recognised that some staff who are not nurses will transcribe prescriptions. Local policy must stipulate controls that minimise the risk of error, such as a second member of staff to independently verify the transcribed order. Transcribed orders should be signed and dated by the transcriber, the second member of staff, and co-signed by the prescribing doctor or registered nurse prescriber within a designated timeframe set out in local policy and prior to staff administering medicines. If the transcribed prescription or order is ambiguous or unclear, verification and confirmation must be sought from the prescriber before administering the medicines to the resident. Best practice for the receipt of a verbal or telephone order indicates that, where possible, the medical practitioner repeats the order to a second staff member. A documented record of the verbal or telephone order should be available to staff who administer the medicine. The medical practitioner is responsible for documenting the written order on the prescription sheet within an acceptable timeframe as outlined in local policies and procedures. The use and frequency of verbal, telephone or fax orders should be audited on a regular basis to ensure this process is not misused by prescriber or service to address resident’s needs. Medicines must be stored so that the products: are not damaged by extremes of temperature, light or dampness cannot be stolen do not pose a risk to anyone else are in the appropriate environment as indicated on the label or packaging of the medicine or as advised by the pharmacist. Residential services may provide secure medicine storage for residents in their own rooms. This is essential when the resident looks after and self administers his or her own medicines. If medicines are stored centrally, the cupboards or trolleys must be big 16 Medicines Management Guidance Health Information and Quality Authority enough, well constructed and have a good quality lock. Only medicines and associated documents should be stored in these cupboards or trolleys. Registered providers and persons in charge also need to have specific arrangements in place for the storage of the following, in line with the service they provide: Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs nutritional supplements medicines that need refrigeration dressings, ostomy products and catheters medicines supplied in medicines administration compliance aids. In general, kitchens, bathrooms and toilets are not suitable for storing medicines. It is good practice to make sure that nothing else is stored in a medicines cupboard. It is also important that: the keys for the medicine area or cupboard are not part of the master key system where medicines are stored centrally, there is a robust procedure in place for key holding. In some smaller residential settings, storage facilities for medicines may be provided within a kitchen if this is the only available suitable space for storing medicines and measures are taken to ensure medicines are not exposed to excessive heat or humidity. In residential care, there should be a separate, secure fridge that is only used for medicines that require cold storage. A separate fridge may not be necessary in a small centre unless there is a constant need to refrigerate medicines that a resident takes regularly, for example, insulin. If a separate fridge is not used for the storage of medicines, medicines should be kept in a container separate from food. The reliability of the fridge should be monitored through daily temperature checks. In some services, appropriately trained staff other than nurses may administer medicines, for example, in some disability services. It is also important to consult with families and carers regarding the administration of medicines, where it is appropriate to do so. Only prescribed medicines which are in date and are properly stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions should be administered to residents. Residents are advised, as appropriate, about the indication for prescribed medicines and are given access, to the patient information leaflet provided with medicines, accessible health information or pharmacist counseling service.