By V. Zapotek. Berry College.
The rate of anxiety disorders has climbed for many decades sevelamer 800mg sale, and no end is in sight cheap sevelamer 800 mg with amex. The world watches in fear as disasters sevelamer 800 mg mastercard, terrorism cheap 400 mg sevelamer otc, financial collapse cheap sevelamer 400 mg online, pandem- ics, crime, and war threaten the security of home and family. Anxiety creates havoc in the home, destroys relationships, causes employees to lose time from work, and prevents people from living full, productive lives. We provide a brief overview of the treatments presented in greater detail in later chapters. You also get a glimpse of how to help if someone you care about or your child has anxiety. If you worry too much or care for someone who has serious prob- lems with anxiety, this book is here to help! Anxiety: Everybody’s Doing It Anxiety involves feelings of uneasiness, worry, apprehension, and/or fear, and it’s the most common of all the so-called mental disorders. Computer screens and television news bring the latest horrors into your living room in real time. The media’s portrayal of these modern plagues includes full-color images with unprecedented, graphic detail. Unfortunately, as stressful and anxiety-arousing as the world is today, only a minority of those suffering from anxiety seek treatment. That’s a problem, because anxiety causes not only emotional pain and distress but also physi- cal strain and even death, given that anxiety extracts a serious toll on the body and sometimes even contributes to suicide. Furthermore, anxiety costs society as a whole, to the tune of billions of dollars. When people talk about what anxiety feels like, you may hear any or all of the following descriptions: ✓ When my panic attacks begin, I feel tightness in my chest. It’s as though I’m drowning or suffocating, and I begin to sweat; the fear is overwhelm- ing. Sometimes, when it’s really bad, I think about going to sleep and never waking up. As you can see, anxiety results in all sorts of thoughts, behaviors, and feel- ings. When your anxiety begins to interfere with day-to-day life, you need to find ways to put your fears and worries at ease. Chapter 1: Analyzing and Attacking Anxiety 11 The heartbreak of anxiety Two studies have found a critical relationship was a small study, one researcher concluded between anxiety and heart disease. One inves- that managing stress and anxiety is one of the tigation at Duke University divided cardiac most powerful tools in fighting heart disease. After five years, the stress management suffer from anxiety and depression are much group had fewer additional heart-related prob- more likely to die from strokes than those with- lems than the other two groups. Obviously, if you have a problem with anxiety, you experience the cost of dis- tressed, anxious feelings. These costs include ✓ A physical toll: Higher blood pressure, tension headaches, and gastro- intestinal symptoms can affect your body. In fact, recent research found that certain types of chronic anxiety disorders change the makeup of your brain’s structures. This is due in part to genetics, but it’s also because kids learn from observation. Cortisol causes fat storage in the abdominal area, thus increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. Sometimes, they withdraw emotionally or do the opposite and depend- ently cling to their partners. The United Kingdom spent 32 billion pounds (approximately $53 billion) on mental healthcare in 2002, a huge portion of which was spent on anxiety- related problems. Even countries that spend little on mental healthcare incur substantial costs from anxiety disorders. These costs include ✓ Decreased productivity ✓ Healthcare costs ✓ Medications Decreased productivity is sometimes due to health problems made worse by anxiety. But the financial loss from downtime and healthcare costs doesn’t include the dollars lost to substance abuse, which many of those with anxiety disorders turn to in order to deal with their anxiety. Thus, directly and indi- rectly, anxiety extracts a colossal toll on both the person who experiences it and society at large. Recognizing the Symptoms of Anxiety You may not know if you suffer from anxiety or an anxiety disorder. And your specific constellation determines what kind of anxiety disorder you may have.
The unabsorbed sugar produces diarrhea and the acid pH helps to contain ammonia in the feces Laryngeal edema – swelling of the larynx in the throat Laryngospasm - spasm of the larynx in the throat Lavage – washing out of a cavity cheap sevelamer 800mg with mastercard, example the eye or the abdomen abdomen Lecithin – any of a group of phospholipids common in plants and animals order sevelamer 400 mg. They are found in the liver cheap sevelamer 400mg without a prescription, nerve tissue sevelamer 800 mg otc, semen cheap sevelamer 800mg on-line, and in smaller amounts in bile and blood. They are essential in the metabolism of fats and are used in the processing of foods, pharmaceuticals products, cosmetics, and inks. Deficiency leads to hepatic and renal disorders, high serum cholesterol levels, atherosclerosis, and arteriosclerosis Lennox-Gestaut - blanket term covering a variety of seizures (atonic drop attacks, complex partial, absence, and occasional tonic clonic) associated with significant delay in motor and intellectual development and does not respond well to drugs Lens – a transparent refractory as in the lens of the eye Lethargy – a condition of functional sluggishness, stupor, a state similar to hypnosis, or the first stage of hypnotism Leukocytosis – an increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood. It occurs most commonly in disease processes involving infection, inflammation, trauma, or stress, but it also can result occasionally from the use of some medications Leukopenia – abnormal decrease of white blood cells usually below 5000. A great number of drugs may cause leucopenia, as can failure of the bone marrow Leukorrhea – a white estrogen related scant/moderate odorless physiological vaginal discharge, normally preceding menarche and occurring during ovulation, during pregnancy, and in response to sexual excitement. Some women note an increased discharge related to oral contraceptive or hormone replacement therapy. Chronic cervicitis and vaginal infections are the most common causes of abnormal genital discharge. Signs of infection include increased discharge, change in color and consistency, odor, vulvar irritation, dysuria, and itching Limbic – the edge or border of a part, the margin Lipase – a fat splitting enzyme found in the blood, pancreatic secretion and tissues 420 Liposome – the recycling center of the cell where large molecules are broken down into small molecules to be reused kidney shaped organs of lymphoid tissues that lie at intervals along the lymphatic vessels Lupus Erythematous - tubercular skin disease, acute or subacute circulatory disorders and trauma predispose, reddish brown soft patches, circumscribed with raised edges and depressed centers which are white and scar like when scales drop off, disease spreads slowly, middle life females are predisposing factors. A chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multiple organ systems and marked by periodic acute episodes. The disease is more prevalent is women of childbearing ages Lymphadenopathy – disease of the lymph nodes Lymphocyte – a white blood cell responsible for much of the body’s immune protection. Fewer than 1% are present in the circulating blood; the rest lie in the lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphoid organs, where they can maximize contact with foreign antigens Lymph nodes – one of thousands of small kidneyed shaped organs of lymphoid tissue that lie at intervals along the lymphatic vessels Lysis – the gradual decline of a fever or disease; the opposite of crisis. The death of cells or microorganisms, caused by antibodies, complement, enzymes, or other substances M Macrocythemia – condition in which erythrocytes are larger than larger, example in folate or vitamin B12 deficiencies Malaise – discomfort, uneasiness, indisposition, often indicative of infection Malassezia – a genus of fungi that infects animals and humans. In hospitals, the infection tends to occur in patients receiving lipid (fat) infusions. Infections of the bloodstream result in sepsis Mania – madness, characterized by excessive excitement, a form of psychosis characterized by exalted feelings, delusions of grandeur, elevation of mood, psychomotor, over activity and overproduction of ideas Meckel’s diverticulum – a congenital sac or blind pouch sometimes found in the lower portion of the ileum. Sometimes it is continued to the umbilicus as a cord or as a tube forming a fistulous opening at the umbilicus. Strangulation may cause intestinal obstruction 421 Medulla – the lower portion of the brain stem in the brain – inner or central portion of an organ Megablastic anemia – a hemotologic disorder characterized by the production and peripheral proliferation of immature, large, and dysfunctional erythrocytes. Megablasts are usually associated with severe pernicious anemia or folic acid deficiency anemia Melanoma – a malignant tumor of melanocytes that often begins in a darkly pigmented mole and can metastasize widely. The incidence of melanoma is rising more rapidly than that of any often cancer Melasma – any discoloration of the skin Melena – black vomit, evacuations resembling tar, due to action of the intestinal juices on free blood Meningitis – inflammation of the membranes of the spinal cord or brain, caused by bacteria, viruses, or other organisms which reach the meninges from other points in the body through blood or lymph, through trauma, or from adjacent bony structures (sinuses, mastoid cells) Menorrhagia – excessive bleeding at the time of a menstrual period, either in number of days or amount of blood or both Menorrhea – normal menstruation or free of profuse menstruation Metabolic – the sum of all physical and chemical changes which take place within an organism, all energy and material transformations which occur within living cells, the food we eat is metabolized into fats, proteins, carbohydrates that our bodies need Metabolic acidosis – a condition resulting from excessive absorption of retention of acid or excessive excretion of bicarbonate. In starvation and in uncontrolled diabetes, glucose is not present or is not available for oxidation for cellular nutrition. The plasma bicarbonate of the body is used up in neutralizing the ketones produced by the breakdown of body fat for energy that occurs in compensation for the lack of glucose. Metabolic acidosis also occurs when oxidation takes place without adequate oxygen, as in heart failure or shock. Severe diarrhea, renal failure, and lactic acidosis may also result in metabolic acidosis. Signs of metabolic acidosis include shock, coma, tachypnea, and almond breath odor. Hyperkalemia often accompanies the condition Metabolites – any product of metabolism Metabolized – to alter the characteristics of a food substance biochemically. To break down a compound to its constituents by biological mechanisms 422 Methamphetamine – a sympathomimetic drug used as a stimulant or weight loss promoter. It is a controlled substance that causes euphoria and has a high potential for abuse Methylcellulose – a tasteless powder that becomes swollen and gummy when wet. It is used as a bulk substance in foods and laxatives and as an adhesive or emulsifier Methylphenidate hydrochloride - a drug that is chemically related to amphetamine. It is used in treating narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder Microorganisms – a living organism too small to be perceived with the naked eye, especially a virus, bacterium, fungus, protozoan, or intracellular, parasite, and some helminths Micturition – the voiding of urine Miosis – abnormal contraction of the pupil, period of distinguishing symptoms in a disease, method of cell division which allows each daughter nucleus to receive half the number of chromosomes present in the somatic cell Mitochondrial – cell organelles or rod or oval shape. Nonselective versions of these medications produced hypertensive crisis and other severe side effects when they were taken with tyramine-containing foods (some cheeses) and several other drugs. Newer members of this class of drugs do not have these effects, but should be used with caution, especially in persons who take selective reuptake inhibitors Mononucleosis – presence of an abnormally high number of mononuclear leukocytes in the blood. An acute infectious disease caused by the Epstein Barr virus, a member of the herpes virus group. The virus is transmitted through the saliva with an incubation period of 30 to 45 days. Symptoms include a gradual onset of 7 to 14 days of flu like symptoms including a severe sore throat, fatigue, headache, chest pain, and myalgia. Findings include enlarged lymph nodes, exudative tonsillitis, and an enlarged spleen. It is caused by antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor in the neuromuscular junction and a decrease in receptor sites for acetylcholine.
Deﬁnitive therapy to prevent signiﬁcant reaccumulation of ﬂuid as well as deﬁn- itive diagnosis is likely to require an open procedure purchase sevelamer 400mg with mastercard. In patients with chronic renal failure and dialysis purchase 400 mg sevelamer otc, initial efforts are to decrease the pres- ence of the effusion by increasing the frequency of the dialysis 16 order sevelamer 400 mg visa. Repeat accumulation of ﬂuids should lead to a more per- manent drainage procedure buy sevelamer 400mg on line. Finally purchase 400 mg sevelamer fast delivery, patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis require pericardial stripping for relief of symptoms. Should it become necessary, cardiopulmonary bypass may be used as an adjunct for a safe procedure. Pulmonary Embolism Once the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus has been conﬁrmed (or if the clinical ﬁndings are strong enough to warrant treatment), treatment and further diagnosis requires a dual approach: treat the embolus and prevent any recurrences. Most cases require treatment with heparin anticoagulation and symptomatic support of the patient. Heparin pre- vents the formation of additional venous thromboses (the presumed origin of the embolus) and is thought to promote dissolution of the emboli in the pulmonary circulation. Further diagnostic studies are aimed at verifying the origin of the embolus (venous thrombosis, endo- carditis, tumor embolus, etc. If anticoagulants are contraindicated or repeat embolism occurs on anticoagulants, then an inferior vena cava umbrella should be placed. Summary Several potential life-threatening diseases treated by cardiothoracic surgeons must be rapidly recognized, their pathophysiology under- stood, and treatment methods recognized. These major entities include coronary artery disease and dissection of and aneurysms of the tho- racic aorta. Understanding Laplace’s law of the heart is key to under- standing both the pathophysiology and therapy for these diseases and the requirements for surgical intervention. Consensus statements on management of patients with acute myocardial infarction, Circulation 1999;99:2829–2848. Long-term survival beneﬁts of coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. To describe the evaluation and management of a patient with an acute focal neurologic deﬁcit. To outline the diagnostic tests and monitoring of carotid occlusive disease, including the role of angiography and noninvasive methods. Case A 68-year-old man with a history of hypertension, elevated cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, and a 50-pack-per-year smoking history notices that he cannot see out of his right eye. While not all strokes are related to large-vessel disease, the incidence is large enough to warrant attention. Ciocca This chapter discusses the pathophysiology of stroke, its workup, and the therapeutic options, and presents treatment recommendations and the available evidence to support them. Pathophysiology Deﬁnitions The differentiation between the aforementioned entities generally is determined by timing and length of symptoms. Symptoms associated with anterior or carotid bifurcation disease include sensory or motor deﬁcits affecting the contralateral face, arms, or legs, aphasia, or alterations in higher cortical dysfunc- tion. Patients with posterior or vertebrobasilar ischemia may present with vertigo, dizziness, gait ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, diplopia, bilateral visual loss, drop attacks (collapse caused by loss of control of extremities without loss of consciousness), as well as bilateral or alter- nating motor or sensory impairment. Nonfocal symptoms, such as syncope, confusion, and “light-headedness,” rarely are the result of cerebrovascular disease. Many would consider a stroke to have occurred if the symp- toms persist beyond 24 hours. This is the symptom described by the patient in the case presented at the beginning of this chapter. This symptom is described classically as the sensation of a shade coming down over the entire eye, half an eye, or a quadrant of an eye. This event is the consequence of a micro- embolus lodging in the ophthalmic artery or one of its retinal branches. A cholesterol crystal (Hollenhorst plaque) occasionally is observed on funduscopic examination as a bright refractive body in a branch of the retinal artery. The signiﬁcance of the above-mentioned focal neurologic events is that they are markers of stroke potential. Thirty-four percent of strokes are the result of large-artery disease as compared with embolism, which leads to 31% of strokes, lacunar infarctions (usually associated with hypertension and small-vessel disease), which leads to 19% of strokes, and hemorrhage, which leads to 16% of strokes. Stroke 307 Anatomy A thorough understanding of the arterial anatomy of the brain is crit- ically important in understanding the pathology and treatment of stroke. The anatomy is divided into anterior and posterior, and these are connected via the circle of Willis. Paired internal carotid arteries that provide approximately 80% to 90% of the total cerebral blood ﬂow feed the anterior circulation.
Many study participants were quick to mention the Tuskegee experiments and other perceived injustices experienced personally or by family members and friends cheap sevelamer 400mg with visa. The reluctance to seek health care due to distrust in the medical system is oftentimes pervasive in the Black culture (R purchase sevelamer 800mg with visa. Therefore discount 400 mg sevelamer with amex, it is important that health care providers buy sevelamer 400 mg otc, along with Black clients cheap 800mg sevelamer visa, devise mechanisms to transcend the effects of history, restore trust in the health system, and overcome barriers to forming relationships to foster optimal health care. However, study participants with higher trust and satisfaction were in concordant client-provider relationships. Further study findings revealed that Black men reported less satisfaction with care provided by nurse practitioners and were more suspicious of the health care system. Consequently, several authors cited (Cooper & Powe, 2004, July; Greer, 2010; Saha, Komaromy, Koepsell, & Bindman, 1999) that many Blacks prefer care and treatment from Black health care providers who they feel can identify with their plight in life. However, the shortage of Black health care providers leaves clients with little choice for health care providers of the same ethnicity (Cooper & Powe, 2004, July; Greer, 2010). Black clients who have experiences of perceived racism may mistrust other racial/ethnic groups, and this mistrust may filter into their relationship with the health care provider. A study conducted by Benkert, Peters, Clark, and Keves-Foster (2006) found that the majority of low-income, urban dwelling Blacks were fairly trusting of their healthcare providers and satisfied with the health care given. Trust was more likely to be higher in nurse practitioners and highest in nurse managed clinics, both of which were mostly women, than Asian providers and male physicians. However, negative effects of perceived racism on trust and satisfaction were evident. This study confirms that Blacks do experience an element of trust in their health care providers, but skepticism continues. Adherence centers on the ability of health care providers to establish a working (trusting) relationship with the client where both perspectives are fully understood (DiGiacomo, 2008) and prejudices, stereotypes, and other issues that may hinder the establishment of a working relationship are addressed. A good working relationship between the healthcare provider and client can facilitate medication adherence. According to Rand and Sevick (2000), the health care provider should work with the client to meet their needs in coping with issues that may interfere with adherence and allow them the autonomy they need to actively participate in the treatment process. Thus, an agreement between the client and health care provider implies a working relationship that allows a reciprocal exchange of information (Cox, 1982), and contributes to an understanding of forces that shape client‘s lives. Health care providers need to understand the social, political, environmental, and economic influences that affect the health of clients and simulate rebellion, conflict, and mistrust in relationships with health care providers (Butterfield, 2002). Oftentimes, short- term health interventions are not successful when ―band-aids‖ are placed on psychological or physiological symptoms rather than addressing the socioeconomic problem that contributed to client‘s health situation. Hence, times exist when health care providers must work to alter the systems that influence the health status of individuals and populations and empower groups and individuals to work on their own behalf (Butterfield, 2002). Coping is the way an individual responds to stress or as described by Shorter-Gooden (2004), coping is a method of solving problems to reduce stress. According to McEwen and Seeman (1999), Black women frequently experience recurring stressors that overtax their coping skills. These stressors may include social confrontations of racism, poor income, sexism, and lower socioeconomic status. Conversely, Carlson and Chamberlain (2005) write that the more powerful predictors that activate the stress response are mental representations of individual expectations and interpretations of events, unlike previous beliefs that emphasize environmental stressors such as racism, sexism, and classism as reasons for variation in health outcomes, especially in Black women. Coping with excessive stressors may contribute to allostatic load, defined as the persistent wear and tear on the body and brain, resulting in the inefficient turning-on or shutting-off of the autonomic nervous system. Repeated, unrelieved, or unremitting stress that occurs frequently over a long period of time causes illness that could affect almost every body system, especially, the cardiovascular system. Further, McEwen and Lasley (2003) noted that individuals with excessive stress tend to show earlier aging, more depression, insulin resistance, immunosuppression, cognitive impairment, and premature decline in physical 70 functioning. According to James (1996), the legend of John Henry may explain how coping with difficult psychosocial environmental stressors increases the susceptibility of marginalized people to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Based on this folktale, there was a contest between a Black man named John Henry and a machine; he defeated the machine and suffered mental and physical exhaustion that resulted in death. James (1996) purports that John Henry symbolizes the relentless struggles of unskilled laborers in their effort to cope with psychosocial, economic, and environmental stressors that eventually erodes their health over time contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Because individuals with low income may be unable to afford medical care and purchase medication(s), nonadherence to the treatment regimen, including medications, may result. It is often difficult to explicate the psychological and physiological stressors that many Black women cope with in their daily lives. One term, double jeopardy, was first conceptualized by Beal (1969) as she addressed the plight of Black women in a capitalist 71 society that birthed racism in an attempt to maintain the oppression of Blacks. Jones and Shorter-Gooden (2003) describe the plight of Black women by using the metaphor of a childhood game called double dutch jump rope. Just as the game has two ropes, Black females have two identities, race and gender. The key to being skillful in the game is to focus on both ropes at the same time because focusing on one rope leads to stumbling. For Black women, race has been the primary concern, while the dualism of race and sexism presents a double jeopardy.
As a consequence of these physical forces acting on the aerosol particle purchase sevelamer 400mg amex, its deposition in the lung is highly dependent on diameter generic sevelamer 800 mg without prescription. Generally: • Particles larger than 10 μm will impact in the upper airways and are rapidly removed by coughing 800 mg sevelamer overnight delivery, swallowing and mucociliary processes buy 800 mg sevelamer amex. An 8 μm particle inhaled at 30 L min−1 has approximately a 50% chance of impacting on the throat order sevelamer 800mg without prescription. If the particles are less than about 3 μm then appreciable deposition in the A region is likely to occur. The “respirable fraction” of a therapeutic aerosol is often quoted as the percentage of drug present in aerosol particles less than 5 μm in size. Each bifurcation results in an increased probability for impaction and the decrease in airway diameter is associated with a smaller displacement required for a particle to contact a surface. Thus to travel down the airways, the drug particles must pass through a successive series of branching tubes of constantly decreasing size. The aerosol particles must constantly change direction in order to remain airborne. Thus lobes of the lung which have the shortest average pathlength will show greatest peripheral deposition. For maximum effect, breath-holding for a period of 5–10 seconds post-inspiration is recommended. Under idealized conditions a 5 μm particle will settle a few mm during a 5-second breath hold. The bronchoconstriction of asthma has a greater influence on exhalation than inhalation and thus deposition by sedimentation may be greater than normal. Therefore a number of terms are used to adequately characterize an aerosol sample: • Particle size is conventionally defined as the aerodynamic diameter, which is the diameter of a spherical particle with unit density that settles at the same rate as the particle in question. Environmental fibers 50 μm in length can reach the A region because they align with the inspired airflow. Such materials then impact in the airways by a process of interception with the airway walls. Most micronized drugs for inhalation will have particle densities around 1, although materials produced by freeze-drying or spray-drying methods are likely to be significantly less dense. It should not be assumed, however, that the uptake of water vapor will always occur. If the drug is given as an aerosolized powder then the drug first needs to dissolve in the mucus layer. Although mucus has a very high water content, varying between approximately 90–95%, its viscosity may result in a slow dissolution of drugs. Thus dissolution may be a rate determining step, especially for poorly soluble drugs, such as some of the corticosteroids which are delivered as dry powder aerosols. Improvement of drug penetration into mucus has been attempted using mucolytic drugs such as N- acetylcysteine, which act to reduce mucus viscosity. Highly water-soluble drugs, given as dry powder 256 aerosols, may dissolve at the very high relative humidity (>99%) present in the airways air and impact as solution droplets. Once in solution, the drug will diffuse through the mucus layer and enter the aqueous environment of the epithelial lining fluid. The rate of diffusion through the mucus will be dependent upon such factors as: • the thickness of the mucus layer; • mucus viscosity—although it should be appreciated that it is the viscosity of the mucus gel intersticies (i. Mucus secretion may be stimulated as a response to “assault” by what the lung perceives as foreign bodies such as microorganisms and dusts or irritants such as cigarette smoke. Airways disease states such as bronchitis, cystic fibrosis and asthma are often associated with a hypersecretion of mucus. Clearly this presents a far greater barrier than is seen in the normal healthy lung. Many studies have been performed with a variety of antibiotics delivered by aerosol for the treatment of chronic lung infections. The studies have produced mixed results with delivery to the lung from the bloodstream (after oral or parenteral dosing) often producing better clinical response. A number of factors, including the efficiency of drug delivery, may be responsible for these observations, but the overproduction of mucus in these disease states also seems likely to play a major role in preventing the drug reaching its target microorganism. A detailed discussion of the structure and properties of mucus and respiratory mucins is given in Chapter 9 (Section 9. The cilia beat at approximately 1,000 beats min−1 in an organized fashion and the ciliary movement may be conceived as a form of rhythmic waving which enables hook-like structures at the ciliary tips to propel mucus along the airways to the throat (see Section 9. Mucociliary clearance is an organized, complex process which is highly dependent upon the composition and depth of the epithelial lining fluid and the viscoelastic properties of the mucus. This may cause an overloading of the ciliary transport process, resulting in 257 a debilitated mucociliary clearance and the build-up of mucus as a thick, highly viscous layer. Thus while the mucociliary clearance of particles takes hours under normal circumstances, induced coughing may result in rapid removal of mucus and any associated drug within minutes. It should be remembered, however, that aerosolized drug deposition is likely to occur over a large surface area in the healthy and mild to moderate airways diseased lung. Coughing will remove mucus from a few localized areas where build-up has occurred and thus the fraction of the deposited dose removed by coughing is likely to be small.
The illness manifests with sudden onset of fever cheap 800mg sevelamer with visa, headache 400 mg sevelamer free shipping, malaise order sevelamer 800mg with mastercard, prostration and skin rash discount sevelamer 800 mg without a prescription. Epidemics of the disease are associated with overcrowding 800mg sevelamer visa, cold weather, lack of washing facilities and fuel, famine and war. The disease is milder than louse-borne typhus and occurs in those individuals living or working in highly rat-infested area. Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Serum for serological tests The serological tests to diagnose typhus are: 1. The smallest living micro-organism capable of free living in nature self-replicating on laboratory media. Highly pleomorphic due to absence of rigid cell wall, instead bounded by a triple-layered “unit membrane”. Have enzyme systems and make their own proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and vitamins. The elementary body is reorganized into reticulate body in the host cell which is specifically adapted for intracellular growth. The reticulate body grows and divides many times to form inclusions in the host cell cytoplasm. With in 24-48 hours of developmental cycle, the reticulate bodies rearrange them selves into infective elementary bodies and released after host cell rupture. Antigenic structure: Group-specific antigen Species-specific antigen Chlamydia trachomatis. Appearance in giemsa’s stain Elementary body -------- Purple Reticulate body---------- Blue Host cell cytoplasm----- Blue. Appearance in iodine stain Brown inclusions in host cell cytoplasm because of glycogen matrix surrounding the particle. Incubation period is 3-10 days Route of transmission is through indirect contact like eye-to- eye by infected fingers or sharing towels. It manifests as a chronic keratoconjunctivitis producing scarring and deformity of the eyelids, corneal vascularization and opacities which may lead to blindness. Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Conjunctival scraping from upper tarsal conjunctivae. Culture: Mac coy cells or embryonated eggs Serology: Immunofluorescent tests Treatment: Erythromycin Tetracycline Control measures:. Females------ Urethritis Cervicitis Pelvic inflamatory diseases If complicated in females, it causes infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis and neonatal pneumonia Transmission is during passage through the infected birth canal. Laboratorydiagnosis: Specimen: Endocervical scraping Culture: mac coy cells Serology: Enzyme immunoassay for group-specific antigen. On the basis of their life habits, microorganism is classified as saprophytes or parasites. Saprophytes : Mode of life of free-living organisms which obtain their nourishment from soil and water. Commensalism: The ability to live on the external or internal surface of the body with out causing disease. Invasiveness of micro-organism A high degree of bacterial invasiveness is usually associated with severe infection. Mode of release from bacteria Excreted by released on bacterial death 295 living cell (Integral part of cell wall) 4. Collagenase: Degrade collagen, which is major protein of fibrous connective tissue. Hyaluronidase: (Early spreading factor) hydrolyzes hyaluronidic acid, which is the ground substance of connective tissue. Lecithinase: Splits lecithin of cell membrane into phosphorylcholine and glycerides. Many layered impermeable barrier to invasion of the tissues by microorganisms from the environment. Lysozyme: An enzyme which lyses the mucopeptide (peptidoglycan) of the Gram-positive bacteria. Respiratory secretion: Traps bacteria and constantly moves them upward propelled by cilia on the cells of the epithelium. Phagocytosis: The process by which microorganisms are ingested and destrrroyed by phagocytic cells. Act as an early defense against infection and are the “pus cells” seen in the exudate from acute infection. Produced in the bone marrow and found in blood stream as monocyte and in tissue as fixed macrophage. Phagolysosome: Fusion ofphagosome and lysozyme (bag of hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes found in phagocytic cells). Specific defense mechanisms There are two main mechanisms by which the host mounts a specific immune response against bacterial infection.